Recent Changes

Playoff Odds

This system is an attempt to model the Major League Soccer season, and provides useful insight into the probability of various occurrences in the remainder of the season.

The algorithm projects the results of future matches by simulating them, using data about which teams are playing and where the match will be played. It uses an estimate of the league-wide scoring average derived from previous matches to project the average number of goals scored per match, and contains an estimate of the league-wide home-field advantage calculated from previous results. Team-level data (see Power Rankings) are added to this model.

The algorithm results in a reasonable model for wins, losses, and draws. The actual schedule is used, and each match is simulated individually. The season is simulated a number of times (currently 10,000), and the results of the simulations are tallied and presented.


The algorithm uses the correct tiebreakers to break ties in the standings (wins, goal differential, goals scored) until reaching the "disciplinary points" tiebreaker. The system is not aware of various teams' disciplinary points, nor does it contain a model for estimating future disciplinary points, so remaining ties after the first three tiebreakers are broken randomly.

Power Rankings

The power rankings algorithm uses 2018-2019 results (including context, like home-field advantage) in order to estimate the performance of each team offensively and defensively. The offensive and defensive ratings are combined to produce a single power ranking.

The power rankings correspond to the relative frequency with which each team should score a goal against each other team. As such, they represent the probability that a team would win against other teams in a golden goal situation. High-scoring teams will tend to have more wins (and losses), and fewer ties. For this reason, given two teams with the same power ranking, the higher-scoring team should perform better in the standings.

Future work